Banished! But why? With what consequences for the people and their nations, both the one they left and the one they made? From sneak thieves and murderers to political protesters, this talk examines the making of a working class.

Penal transportation was a critical instrument shaping both Britain and Australia. This event considers the role of penal transportation in the creation and destruction of England’s ‘Bloody Code’, the types of crimes included and the people it punished. It then travels with the men and women, boys and girls to the Colonies, to see how they laboured, loved and earned their freedom.

Features big data, and latest research findings.

Professor Deborah Oxley is Professor of Social Science History at University of Oxford. Her specialism include penal transportation to Australia, colonial Australian development and crime and punishment in Great Britain and Ireland.

Dr David Meredith is Associate Member of the University of Oxford’s History Faculty in economic and social history. His specialisms include Australia in the global economy, convict Australia and British living standards during industrialisation.